Engeering Horizon



February 21
17:20 2018

By: M. Mansoor Malik, Institute of Industrial Control Systems, P.O. Box 1398, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

The article is based upon a survey intending the materials used for Radar technology, especially the materials which are used to fabricate the Radar antennas; enhancing the performance. Moreover, various coatings, which are used on the antenna, are also described.  Finally, the materials which reduce the Radar visibility (i.e. stealth materials) are discussed briefly.

  1. Introduction

The basic idea behind radar is very simple: a signal is transmitted, it bounces off an object and it is later received by some type of receiver.  This is like the type of thing that happens when sound echo’s off a wall.

Radio waves and microwaves are two types of electromagnetic waves.  Electromagnetic waves (EM) like all waves transport energy but can do so through a vacuum.  Sound waves and ocean waves require matter to transport energy but EM waves can do so without the presence of matter.  Because of this, satellites can use radars to work on projects outside of the Earth’s atmosphere and on other planets.  Another useful thing about EM waves is that they travel at a constant speed through a vacuum called the speed of light. This is very useful to know to when doing ranging calculations.  Radio waves have wavelengths that are ≥10 cm and microwaves have wavelengths that range from 10 cm to 1/10 of a mm (Figure-1). Once the radar receives the returned signal, it calculates useful information from it such as the time taken for it to be received, the strength of the returned signal, or the change in frequency of the signal.  This information is then translated to reveal useful data: an image, a position or the velocity of the object.

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Engineering Horizons

Engineering Horizons

“Engineering Horizons” is the first & leading technical magazine of Pakistan covering Process, Mechanical, Metallurgical, Mining, Electrical & Electronics field under a single cover. We also feel pleasure in saying that this is the only magazine of its own kind & style, which is widely circulated in all Engineering Sectors of Pakistan.

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